& Lalonde, S. (, Roberts, M., Geiger, W. & German, J. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. Shamberger RJ, Rukovena E, Longfield AK, Tytko SA, Deodhar S, Willis CE. I think it would be agreed that, to date, the approaches used to determine requirements for trace elements (37), such as those indicated in Table 2, are far from ideal and in some cases quite unsatisfactory. Furthurmore, boron rescues the effects of a defect in RGII cross-linked dimer content of an Arabidopsis mutant, mur-1 (63). Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67 5 Suppl:1017S-21. Tuormaa TE. 2017; ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering. The elements belonging to these groups are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. 2020; 6(1). Washington, D.C: National Academy of Sciences; 1974. p. 22-5. It is composed of 11 kinds of sugar monomers and forms dimers through boron, and it is essential for plant growth. Indeed, this calls to mind the interesting studies of Ross and Eisenstein (9) on mitochondrial aconitase, which has an iron-sulfur [4Fe-4S] cluster and is considered to be an ancient enzyme (10). Rosati G, Riccardi F, Tucci A. 2019; 319(1): 175, Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. The Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering the roles played by trace elements in medical and biological systems. Food and nutrition board recommended daily allowances. The foregoing leads us now briefly to the second entry on the list in Table 1, namely the determination of the requirements for trace elements by humans at different stages of life and under various physiological, dietary and environmental conditions. 2019; 191(3), Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis 1993;7:19-24. The action of Zirconium (Zr) on biological systems presents an enigma. Frieden E. The evolution of metals as essential elements (with special reference to iron and copper). This is not meant to be an exhaustive detailed list but a somewhat general one that I have developed in relation to my interest as a nutritional biochemist and that I can use to make my points. Zinc. The list of abbreviations related to JTEMB - Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. It is ubiquitous, being present in nature in amounts higher than most trace elements. Hart EB, Steenbock H, Waddell J, Elvehjem CA. Insufficient resources and a minimal commitment to improve upon prior estimates of requirements contribute to the current lack of sound quantitative nutrient requirement information, despite its critical importance for the planning and evaluation (38) of diets. Also, if boron is involved in calcium function (64, 65), should we examine calcium-boron relations in soft tissues with particular reference to structure-function relationships. Andrews ED, Hartley WJ, Grant AB. 2020; 103(8): 4090. Nielsen FH. It catalyzes the conversion of citrate to isocitrate, and they (9) show it is a target for regulation by iron regulatory proteins; a nice example of a connection between a trace element and the macronutrient metabolism with which I have been mainly interested. There is much room for creative integrative thinking. Environmental Geochemistry and Health. It will be interesting to learn whether any of the ideas presented herein have merit or perhaps even find a place in the organization and/or content of TEMA 12, to be held approximately three years hence in Coleraine, N. Ireland. Rehnberg GL, Hein JF, Carter SD, Linko RS, Laskey JW. Odell BL. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology is abbreviated as JTEMB. Van Rij AM, Thomson CD, McKenzie JM, Robinson MF. Andrews NC. Systemic Impact of Trace Elements on Human Health and Diseases: Nutrition, Toxicity, and Beyond Last update August 2020 Neto JB. Crit Rev Toxicol 2006;36:155-63. 1. an element that occurs at very small quantities in the body but is nonetheless important for many biological processes Familiarity information: TRACE ELEMENT … Iron in nutrition. Sex- and sexual maturation-related aspects of the element accumulation in soft tissues of the bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam. These range from metabolic to signaling pathways, and when perturbed they alter output of matter and energy. 2019; Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry. ii) Is the formation and /or activity of one or many of the zinc-finger proteins (28) or of the 700+ genes (29) that encode these transcription factors affected early on in the development of the depletion of zinc pools; or iii) is DNA repair and replication (30) more immediately and profoundly altered and could this effect be detected and localized at the single cell level by new and modified comet assays (31)? The lack of good dose response biological data characterizes so much of the knowledge base of human nutrient requirements. Specifically, does the zinc deficient phenotype differ under varying degrees of antioxidant nutrient status? ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering. Much of this information depends on the success of the type of research effort alluded to above, with an especially strong focus on the systems biology of trace elements in man and animals. Newer aspects of the roles of zinc, manganese, and copper in human nutrition. Dayan AD, Paine AJ. This raises the possibility of i) conducting differential enzyme displays, where as many as 40–50 enzymes can be measured for titer by immunoassay and activity measured with fluorescent substrates on easily accessible matrices such as blood, saliva, urine, synovial fluids, and/or ii) developing enzyme sensor signatures that, for example, assess the inflammatory response where lymphocyte ectopeptidases and/or convertases and apoptotic enzymes, and/or matrix, and/or metalloproteases could be determined. Anderson RA.  It is clear to me, as we consider linking genotype to phenotype through the various biological levels of complexity at which trace elements exert their influence, that there are multiple and different kinds of challenges for us to face and resolve. 2017; : 6045, Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 2020; : 1, International Journal of Molecular Sciences. New essential trace elements for the life sciences. PopUp = window.open( location,'RightsLink','location=no,toolbar=no,directories=no,status=no,menubar=no,scrollbars=yes,resizable=yes,width=650,height=550'); }, Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None. It was established in 1987 as the Journal of Trace Elements and Electrolytes in Health and … This would lead to significant and meaningful advances in trace element nutrition. The variation in iron absorption, which accounts for a major portion of the difference in iron requirements among men and nonmenstruating women, might have a genetic origin and perhaps due, at least in part, to a specific gene that encodes duodenal cytochrome B (40), as I have speculated before (41). Anand T, Rahi M, Sharma P, Ingle GK. Based on A. Ajami (personal communication). Int J Nutr Metab 2012;4:45-50. Clin Chem 1975;21:501-20. Beshgetoor D, Hambidge M. Clinical conditions altering copper metabolism in humans. J Orthomol Med 1998;4:99-109. (, Goff, S. A., Ricke, D., Lan, T. H., Presting, G., Wang, R., Dunn, M., Glazebrook, J., Sessions, A., Oeller, P., Varma, H., Hadley, D. & Hutchison, D. (, Donangelo, C. M., Woodhouse, L. R., King, S. M., Viteri, F. E. & King, J. C. (, Hess, S. Y., Zimmermann, M. B., Adou, P., Torresani, T. & Hurrell, R. F. (, McGlynn, A. P., Wasson, G., O'Connor, J., McKerr, G., McKelvey-Martin, V. J. Isotope metaprobes, nutrition and the roads ahead, Trends in tracer techniques including use of positron emission tomography, Metabolism 2000: the emperor needs new clothes, Iron deficiency and iron overload: effects of diet and genes, Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors and cancer: trials and tribulations, Matrix metalloproteinases: they're not just for matrix anymore! However, considerably less attention than would have been desirable has been given to a more holistic representation of trace element biology or to a system-wide understanding of trace elements in human and animal function and well-being (12). Curr, Simultaneous analysis of metabolites in potato tuber by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Metabonomics: metabolic processes studied by NMR spectroscopy of biofluids, Imaging of metabolites by using a fusion protein between a periplasmic binding protein and GFP derivatives. N Z Vet J 1968;16:3-17. To fully and effectively exploit this technology we need: i) a goal (criterion of trace element adequacy), ii) information about intakes of individuals, iii) information about individuals' requirements, iv) information about factors that affect requirements, v) information about individuals' nutritional status, vi) dietary characteristics (foods, sources, meals), as well as an understanding of the social, cultural, economic and political determinants of well-being. Iodine is important in thyroid metabolism, but has no known potential role in HIV in the absence of thyroid disease. Paternain JL, Domingo JL, Corbella J. Developmental toxicity of cobalt in the rat. Kamberi B, Hoxha V, Kqiku L, Pertl C. The manganese content of human permanent teeth. Nutrition 1995;11 1 Suppl:83-6. Pol J Environ Stud 2001;10:399-404. Some ideas are presented as to how we might embrace, in the context of a reconstructive approach, the exciting new knowledge and related techniques emerging during the postgenome era and develop new paradigms for assessing trace element needs and status, and for establishing effective nutrient intake under different conditions of complex genotype-environment interactions. Which of the following trace elements needed by humans is commonly added to table salt? The elements belonging to this group are copper, iron, zinc, chromium, cobalt, iodine, molybdenum, and selenium. Nutrition 2014;30:764-70. • The precise recognition of mild trace element deficiencies and how to establish their functional consequences, possibly confounded by other concurrent trace element inadequacies, are difficult to assess, • Approaches to the quantitative determination of requirements for trace elements remain unsatisfactory and archaic, • Our understanding of the biological basis for and extent of the variation in requirements among apparently similar individuals is poor, • There is a need to determine the quantitative extents to which genetic, epigenetic and dietary factors interact to determine the nutritional phenotype. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67 5 Suppl:960S-4. Another reason might be that we all easily connect via the small world of scientific networks (11) that tie us together in the different domains of nutritional science. (, Young, V. R., Borgonha, S. & Ajami, A. M. (, Burke, W., Imperatore, G. & Reyes, M. (, Coussens, L. M., Fingleton, B. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 1999;31:991-4. The essential trace elements, such as Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Co, if deficient, are compensated, whereas other trace elements, for example Hg, Cr, Mo, etc., may react as true therapeutic agents. Costa M, Klein CB. It is ubiquitous, being present in nature in amounts higher than most trace elements. A conspectus of research on zinc requirements of man. Am J Physiol 1934;107:146-56. The Standard Abbreviation (ISO4) of Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology is “J Trace Elem Med Biol”.ISO 4 (Information and documentation – Rules for the abbreviation of title words and titles of publications) is an international standard, defining a uniform system for the abbreviation of serial publication titles. In particular, there has been a strong emphasis on the details of the molecular mechanisms responsible for trace element uptake, movement, homeostasis and function. Instrumentation Science & Technology. Barceloux DG. iii) How does the macromolecular state of cells and organs relate to the metabolic flux of the trace element? Flouride Metabolism. 2020; 21(23): 9259, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2018; 23: 10. I was honored to have been asked to help close what has been to me a truly exciting and informative TEMA 11. Christiansen JM, Poulsen OM, Thomsen M. A short-term cross-over study on oral administration of soluble and insoluble cobalt compounds: Sex differences in biological levels. Rajendran R, Vasudevan DM, Vijayakumar T. Serum levels of iron and proteins in oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF). This might be extremely difficult to achieve in any comprehensive way, but I don't see a major alternative or otherwise simple way forward. Stohs SJ, Bagchi D. Oxidative mechanisms in the toxicity of metal ions. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 2002;13:155-70. I believe this approach, suitably combined with more traditional measures of trace element status, offers a new and expanded opportunity to study the dynamic and functional linking between genotype and phenotype. In reasonable contrast to the genome, and like the proteome, the metabolome is not stable over time. Chlorophyll fluorescence, dark respiration and metabolomic analysis of Halodule pinifolia reveal potential heat responsive metabolites and biochemical pathways under ocean warming. Diet and skin disease in dogs and cats. The real point is that a combination of genetic/cellular studies together with whole body investigations of iron uptake and dynamics would be both valuable and exciting and they would also test the validity of such an integrated research framework. Although required in very small amounts, trace elements such as iron, iodine, fluoride, copper, zinc, chromium, selenium, manganese and molybdenum are vital for maintaining health. mostump. Kaminsky LS, Mahoney MC, Leach J, Melius J, Miller MJ. Essential trace elements: Boron, cobalt, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc. J Nutr 1998;128 12 Suppl:2783S-9. Areca nut in any form have high level of soluble copper in them, The tissue of submucous fibrosis patients had increased copper and decreased zinc and iron than the normal patients. 2020; 928: 072090. Trace element definition, any element that is required in minute quantities for physiological functioning. He points out, using Polanyi's (43) analogy to a game of chess, that molecular biology has focused on the details of the “moves” (or controls) while largely ignoring the strategy, or in this case, the dynamic protein networks that generate phenotype from genotype. Adv Exp Med Biol 1974;48:1-29. This is another challenge and it should not be underestimated. Probable essential trace elements: Chromium, fluorine, nickel, selenium, and vanadium. There are seven essential trace elements described in humans: chromium, copper, cobalt, iodine, iron, selenium, and zinc.There is no known use for cobalt except as part of vitamin B12. Physically promotive trace elements: Bromine, lithium, silicon, tin, and titanium. Hickey F. Selenium in human and animal nutrition. 2019; (4): 293, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Vasudevan DM, Sreekumari S. Text Book of Biochemistry for Medical Students. The important point, once again, is that there is a great deal of cross talk among and interactions between trace elements, other minerals and nutrients. A framework for a dynamic probing of the metabolome. Group IV: They are additional trace elements. In short, the development and evolution of metabolic profiling technologies, including mass spectrometry (52) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (53), coupled with advances in high throughput analytical and computing technologies, will revolutionize our ability to discover how trace-element nutrients determine the level and activity of specific gene products and affect genetic pathways. Finally, and perhaps realistically, it is now ever more important for all of us interested in advancing nutritional science, and its application, to interact broadly and actively as biological knowledge and the technological and informational bases upon which we depend for our livelihood and understanding continue to expand and develop at an extraordinary pace. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Chronic ingestion of Mn3O4 by rats: Tissue accumulation and distribution of manganese in two generations. Match. Gil VM, Ferreira JS. Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1993;65:233-40. Group V: This group of metals is not essential their presence may produce toxicity. Burch RE, Hahn HK, Sullivan JF. 2020; 138: 109772, TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry. Biological Trace Element Research provides a much-needed central forum for the emergent, interdisciplinary field of research on the biological, environmental, and biomedical roles of trace elements. & Matrisian, L. M. (, Roesner, V., Wagner, C., Kopka, J., Trethewey, R. N. & Willmitzer, L. (, Lindon, J. C., Nicholson, J. K., Holmes, E. & Everett, J. R. (, Fehr, M., Frommer, W. B. Anemia and iron deficiency in heart failure. Chen X, Young G, Chen J, Chen X, Wen Z, Ge K. Studies on the relations of selenium and Keshan diseases. Rev Port Cardiol 2014;33:39-44. 2018; 8(20): 181202, Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research. Acta Stomatol Croat 2009;43:83-8. 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Adverse effects of zinc deficiency: A review from the literature. Krejpcio Z. Essentiality of chromium for human nutrition and health. • TRACE ELEMENT (noun) The noun TRACE ELEMENT has 1 sense:. Also, there must now be careful consideration and reassessment of the nature of the training given to the coming generations of graduates and post graduates in areas relevant to TEMA's purpose. Turnlund JR. Human whole-body copper metabolism. The deficiency of such elements usually proves fatal unless intervened properly. Khanna S. Immunological and biochemical markers in oral carcinogenesis: The public health perspective. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of chromium compounds in humans. It is taken up by plants from soil and water and accumulated in certain tissues. For example, as summarized in Table 4, measurement of organic acids associated with the Krebs cycle might be valuable for assessing iron status (9) or determination of ribose and deoxyribose levels in blood or cells as indices of cell turnover and perhaps, therefore, of zinc status. Shetty SR, Babu S, Kumari S, Shetty P, Hegde S, Karikal A. In essence, it seems to me that for the field to move forward we need to be less insular as investigators and even more creative as mentors. Clin Chem 1980;26:185-9. J Cancer Res Treat 2013;1:1-3. Furthermore, a complimentary approach to the study of trace element metabolomics might include measurements of various proteins, especially in reference to the intimate functional relationships between trace elements and a myriad of proteins that have been highlighted elsewhere at this symposium. To borrow an idea from Bradshaw (66), it also seems to me that trace-element science and nutritional science, more broadly, is an excellent example of “The Blind Men and the Elephant.” This poem, by the American poet John Godfrey Saxe (1816–1887), based on a fable told in India many years ago, reads in part: Just as Bradshaw (66) commented about the future of the journal “Molecular and Cellular Proteomics” of which he was editor, it similarly appears that as long as those six blind men talk and interact wisely the elephant will be well cared for. elements that required by an organism in only minute quantities. Spell. Halsted JA, Smith JC Jr, Irwin MI. What are trace elements? However, not so impressive are: i) the precise recognition of mild trace element deficiencies and how to establish their functional consequences, possibly confounded by concurrent trace element inadequacies, are difficult to assess, ii) approaches to the quantitative determination of requirements for trace elements remain unsatisfactory and archaic, in so many ways, iii) our understanding of the extent of the biological basis for the variation in requirements among apparently similar individuals is poor, and iv) much needs to be learned about the quantitative extent to which genetic, epigenetic and dietary factors interact to determine the nutritional phenotype. Hence, peer review generally results in “low marks” for such endeavors, resulting in difficulty in obtaining outside funding.” Although there is considerable truth to this view, I believe basic investigators and those with a more applied focus in the trace element arena should coalesce and integrate some of their research interests and efforts in and around the issue of defining trace element requirements and improving assessment of nutritional status in quantitative and more precise predictive terms. Abnormal trace metals in man: Tin. How to abbreviate Journal Of Trace Elements In Medicine And Biology? Dictionary entry overview: What does trace element mean? 2020; : 1, Journal of the American Ceramic Society. b) There is a zinc “sensing” receptor involved in intracellular calcium mobilization and signaling (33, 34), and c) mobilization of calcium induces nitric oxide, which releases zinc from metallothionein (35). National Academy of Sciences. This is not meant to be a prediction but rather how the world of trace elements in man and animals (TEMA) could be and, in part, I will approach my task with due recognition of the many exciting advances that have been presented at TEMA 11 and as recorded in these proceedings. Schroeder HA, Balassa JJ, Tipton IH. 2019; 2019: 1, Journal of Molecular Structure. Recent advances in disorders of iron metabolism: Mutations, mechanisms and modifiers. STUDY. Their deficiency and excess states. Diabetes Care 2004;27:2741-51. trace elements. Int J Biol Markers 2000;15:179-83. related. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. (, Pearce, L. L., Grandley, R. E., Han, W., Wasserloos, K., Stitt, M., Kanai, A. J., McLaughlin, M. K., Pitt, B. R. & Leviton, E. S. (, Institute of Medicine/Food and Nutrition Board (, McKie, A. T., Barrow, D., Latunde-Dada, G. O., Rolfs, A., Sager, G., Mudaly, E., Mudaly, M., Richardson, C., Barlow, D., Bomford, A., Peters, T. J., Raja, K. B., Shirali, S., Hediger, M. A., Farzaneh, F. & Simpson, R. J. 2nd ed. Zinc in the nutrition of the rat. J Chem Educ 1985;62:917-23. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription.
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